The state characterized by hot semi-arid conditions has 49% of the total geographical area as cultivated lands (9.6 million ha.). The irrigated area is only 32% of the total cultivated area. Rest of the area faces large water deficit. The ground waters are of poor quality. The alluvial soils are alkaline/saline and deficient in nitrogen, phosphorous and zinc. The cropping intensity is low at 118%. The total food grains production of the state is 5.26 million tones. The important crops are groundnut, cotton, perlmillet, maize, sorghum, castor, gram and mustard.
The crop has witnessed positive growth in area, production and yield during the past three decades. While area under the crop has increased form 1.02 lakh ha in 1975-76 to 2.85 lakh ha in 2005-06, the productivity has almost doubled from 466 to 1,098 kg/ha, resulting in a total production of 3.13 lakh tones. Traditionally, medium duration varieties are grown in rainfed areas and short duration varieties have gained popularity in irrigated areas. The major constraints to productivity of pigeonpea are wilt and sterility mosaic disease, pod borer complex (Helicoverpa armigera, Maruca and pod fly) and terminal drought.
Gujarat cultivates groundnut in about 2 million ha with an annual production of 4.5 million tonnes and productivity of 2,235 kg/ha. Inadequate availability of quality seeds of high-yielding varieties, terminal drought due to early cessation of monsoon and susceptibility to stem and collar rot are the major constraints limiting the productivity gains of groundnut in the state. With high-yielding varieties and good crop management, yield levels could further be enhanced.
Castor is cultivated in about 3 to 3.5 lakh ha with a productivity of 1,700 to 1,950 kg/ha. The area under crop has remained almost static during the last three years. Fusarium wilt disease is the major constraint for stepping up the productivity. Imbalanced plant nutrient application (mainly N application and no use of P and K) including absence of use of secondary nutrients like sulphur and micronutrients like zinc and iron, are other important factors for low productivity.
Area under cotton in the state has increased from 14.98 to 23.90 lakh ha, mainly owing to cultivation of Bt cotton hybrids during the last five years. A significant jump in production, almost 3 fold from 31 lakh bales (1 bale is 170 kg) in 2003 to 90 lakh bales in 2006-07 has been recorded. The productivity has also increased from 352 kg/ha to 640 kg/ha. Imbalanced nutrient supply and overwhelming susceptibility to insect pests (other than bollworm) and diseases are the major constraints for production.
Sugarcane is grown in about 2.03 lakh ha, with total cane production of about 146 lakh tones/ha. Inadequate availability of quality seed of improved varieties, red rot and wilt diseases, poor soil fertility and imbalanced fertilizer application are the major constraints to production.
Livestock and dairy production being the backbone of agriculture in Gujarat, the deficit in all components of fodder, dry crop residues and feed has to be met by increasing productivity utilizing untapped feed resources. Major constraint is paucity of quality seed of fodder crops. The major fodder crops grown are Pearl Millet, Sorghum, Guar, Lucerne, Cowpea, Oat, Guinea grass, Dinanath, Dhaman and Sewan grass.
Mango is one of the major fruit crops of Gujarat. Alphonso and Kesar varieties are grown for export. It is cultivated in 89,700 ha with total production of 7.29 lakh tonnes having productivity of 8.1 tonnes/ha. A large area is being brought under mango cultivation, which needs technological backup for making Gujarat a strong mango growing state for providing income generation, employment opportunities and nutritional security.
Banana is one of the major fruits crops of Gujarat. This gives employment and income to millions of people engaged in its growing and trade. Area under production is 46,300 ha with a production of 1.9 million tonnes and productivity of 42.7 tonnes / ha. This is higher than the national average (42.7 tonnes/ha.) Gujarat has taken up a massive programme for expansion of banana cultivation with micropropagated plants of improved cultivars.
Gujarat grows onion in kharif as well as rabi season in over 30,000 ha, with productivity levels of 15 and 21 tonnes/ha respectively. Kharif productivity is low due to poor yielding local genotypes as well as due to high incidence of diseases. In rabi season, Pilipatti local genotypes is grown which has low productivity. Further shortage of irrigation and high incidence of thrips reduce the productivity.
Farm Tools and Equipment
The tools, equipment and technologies which would be applicable for better farm operations and placement of inputs and drudgery reduction, resulting in higher productivity in agriculture and post harvest processing , in the state are: laser land leveler, rotavator, multi crop planter, fertilizer broadcaster, rotary weeder, groundnut digger-shaker, greenhouse technology, ECS, modern ginning, primary lac processing, modern grain milling, fish transport, solid-state biogas plant.
Livestock and Poultry
The state has 0.2 million crossbred cattle, 1.4 million non-descript cattle and 2.9 million buffaloes in milk, producing around 7.0 million tonnes of milk annually, and buffaloes are contributing the major share (4.4 million tonnes). Besides, 8.2 million poultry are contributing 58 million eggs per annum. The state has great potential to enhance productivity of cattle and buffalo.
Gujarat is one of the richest states in the country in terms of fishery resources. With a coastline of 1,600 km, the state is the top producer of marine fish (around 6 lakh tonnes). the state has enormous potential to increase fish production from mariculture and coastal aquaculture (potential area, 376,000 ha.) Further, a variety of inland fishery resources such as reservoirs (2.86 lakh ha), lakes (12,000 ha) and ponds (71,000 ha) exist in the state that can be harnessed to increase fish production from the present level of 45,000 tonnes. the mean pond yield is only 1 tonne/ha/year, mainly because of lack of quality seed and low feeding levels.
Technological interventions followed during Xth Plan & also to be pursued to some extent during XIth Five year plan.
STATE :- GUJARAT
· Cultivation of the short duration hybrid GTH 1; high-yielding varieties- GT 100, GT 101 and GAUT 001E under double cropping system; and medium duration varieties- BDN 2, BSMR736 and BSMR 853 under rain fed condition.
· Pigeon pea + groundnut intercropping in Saurastra region.
· Integrated nutrient management including soil application of 20 kg
· Seed treatment with bio agents
· Control of insects and pest through IPM
· Pre-monsoon sowing of early maturing varieties like GG 20, GG 10, HNG-10 and GG-2.
· Application of zinc sulphate @ 30kg/ha in Kharif Groundnut
· Protective irrigation (Sprinkler system of irrigation)
· Seed treatment with bavistin @2g/kg of seed.
· In-situ water harvesting
· Intercropping with pigeon pea, castor, cotton, sunflower and sesame.
· Deep tillage for control of stem rot disease.
· Adoption of wilt resistant hybrids/varieties like GCH-4, GCH 5, GCH 6, GCH 7, DCH 519, GC 3 and 48-1
· Balanced fertilization with N, P, K and S, Zn (30 kg/ha) and Fe
· Extensive intercropping in groundnut (2-3:1 groundnut : castor) in Saurashtra region
· Introduction of short duration pulses like mungbean to increase the farmers income
· Optimization of spacing
· Use of good quality seeds of Bt hybrids as well as recommended varieties/hybrids/Bt hybrids like G Cot -15, 16, 19, 21, 23 and MDH 11
· Balanced nutrient supply through integrated nutrient management
· Integrated pest management
· Use of micro-irrigation systems
· Cultivation of early (CO 94008 and CO 85004) and mid-late (CO 86032, CO 99004 and CO 99006) varieties
· Vegetables and spices as intercrops
· Use of INM, IWM and IPM
· Growing of Jaya, IR-28, GR-17, GR-7, GR-3, GR-4, GR-5, Gurjari.
· Transplanting techniques of paddy.
· Broadcasting soaked and sprouted paddy seed in the field.
· Growing of GW-496, LOK-1, Lok-45, GW-322, GW-503 varieties.
· Use of Improved production technology
· Use of improved intercultural farm tools
· Adoption of high-yielding varieties of sorghum (Harasona 855, Safed Moti, GFS 4) Lucerne (RL 88, Anand 2, Anand 1, LL 3, Anand 3), Cowpea (UPC 5287, UPC 5286), pearlmillet (Giant Bajra, Raj Bajra Chari 2, AVKB 19), Guar (Bundel Guar 1, Bundel Guar 3, guara 80, HFG 356), Oat (Bundel Jai 851, OL 125, UPO 212, UPO 94), guinea grass (PGG 14, PGG 616, PGG 101), dinanath grass (Bundel 2, CO 1)
· Strengthening seed production and supply
· Round the year forage production in irrigated areas: Napier-Bajra hybrid + cowpea-lucerne and maize + cowpea – oat – maize + cowpea
· Forage-food systems in rainfed areas: sorghum (fodder) + pigeonpea (grain) (2:1)
· The silvipastoral systems involving Acacia nilotica + Cenchrus setigerus and Leucaena leucacepbala + Panicum maximum
· Wasteland, community grazing land and joint forest management
· Use of urea molasses mineral block
· Fodder conservation, densification and baling to facilitate establishment of fodder banks
· Use of varieties such as Alphonso, Kesar, Neeleshan Gujarat, Neeleshwari, Neelphanso
· Rejuvenation of old/senile orchards
· Top working of old and unproductive orchards by grafting superior varieties
· Application of paclobutrazol for inducing regular bearing, increasing yield and making tree relatively dwarf
· Adoption of drip irrigation.
· PHT & value addition.
· IPM measures for control of mealy bug
· Replacement of Cavandish group of varieties with Grand Naine
· Planting of tissue cultured disease free plants
· Adoption of fertigation and nutrient monitoring based on tissue analysis
· High-density plantation in double row system
· Utilization of pseudo stem waster for vermicompost production.
· Dipping in streptocyclin 300 ppm or copper oxycloride (0.3 %) before planting.
· Application NPK @ 300, 60, 200 g per plant in the month of June & October with 25 kg FYM in Kali patti variety.
· IPM for control of fruit borer
· PHT and value addition
· Cultivation of variety i.e. Halavay, Khadravy, Medjool in costal belt of Gujarat.
· Hand pollination technique.
· PHT & value addition
· In kharif season planting of Super 780 and ALR varieties of onion on raised bed with drip sprinkler irrigation
· In rabi season, planting of varieties like N 2-4-1, NRCOG 592 and ALR with drip and sprinkler irrigation
· Field curing and storage in bottom and side-ventilated storage structures of reduced losses in storage
· Use of HYVs in crops –
Ø Coriander – RCr-435, RCr-41, Hisar Surabhi, NRCSS-ACR-1.
Ø Cumin – RZ.223, Gujarat Cumin-4, RZ-19, RZ-209, G-2
Ø Fennel - RF-125, RF-143, Gujarat Fennel-11, Hisar Sawrup, NRCSS-AF-1.
Ø Fenugreek – RMT-305,RMT-1,NRCSS-AM-1, NRCSS-AM-2
Ø Ajowan - NRCSS-AA-1, NRCSS-AA-2.
Ø Isabgol – RI-89, GI-2.
Ø Use of bio fertilizers like Azospirillum @ 1.5 kg /ha
Ø PHT and value addition
Ø IPM for control of insect and pests
· Use of HYVs of brinjal, tomato, ladies fingure, cucurbits, chilli & cole crops.
· Use of poly house for nursery raising.
· Production and protective agro-techniques in vegetable.
· Seeds & seedling treatment with bavistin @ 2g per/kg of seed.
· Use of zero energy cool chamber to prolong the self life.